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Table of contents
- Table of Contents
- Chapter 7: Design and Development
- Org Design for Design Orgs by Peter Merholz, Kristin Skinner
This person works with the stakeholders of the project to keep the team organized and communicates the status of the project to management. A project manager does not have authority over the project team; instead, the project manager coordinates schedules and resources in order to maximize the project outcomes. A project manager must be a good communicator and an extremely organized person. A project manager should also have good people skills.
- Chapter 8 Outline.
- Fear: Learning To Run Over What You Run From.
- Systems Analyst?
Many organizations require each of their project managers to become certified as a project management professional PMP. An information-security officer is in charge of setting information-security policies for an organization, and then overseeing the implementation of those policies. This person may have one or more people reporting to them as part of the information-security team.
As information has become a critical asset, this position has become highly valued. As technology evolves, many new roles are becoming more common as other roles fade.
Many companies are now hiring social-media experts and mobile-technology specialists. The increased use of cloud computing and virtual-machine technologies also is breeding demand for expertise in those areas. These job descriptions do not represent all possible jobs within an information-systems organization. Larger organizations will have more specialized roles; smaller organizations may combine some of these roles. Many of these roles may exist outside of a traditional information-systems organization, as we will discuss below. Working with information systems can be a rewarding career choice.
Whether you want to be involved in very technical jobs programmer, database administrator , or you want to be involved in working with people systems analyst, trainer , there are many different career paths available. Many times, those in technical jobs who want career advancement find themselves in a dilemma: do they want to continue doing technical work, where sometimes their advancement options are limited, or do they want to become a manager of other employees and put themselves on a management career track? In many cases, those proficient in technical skills are not gifted with managerial skills.
Some organizations, especially those that highly value their technically skilled employees, will create a technical track that exists in parallel to the management track so that they can retain employees who are contributing to the organization with their technical skills.
Table of Contents
As technology is becoming more and more important to businesses, hiring employees with technical skills is becoming critical. But how can an organization ensure that the person they are hiring has the necessary skills? These days, many organizations are including technical certifications as a prerequisite for getting hired. Certifications are designations given by a certifying body that someone has a specific level of knowledge in a specific technology.
This certifying body is often the vendor of the product itself, though independent certifying organizations, such as CompTIA , also exist.
Many of these organizations offer certification tracks, allowing a beginning certificate as a prerequisite to getting more advanced certificates. To get a certificate, you generally attend one or more training classes and then take one or more certification exams. Passing the exams with a certain score will qualify you for a certificate. In most cases, these classes and certificates are not free and, in fact, can run into the thousands of dollars. For many working in IT or thinking about an IT career , determining whether to pursue one or more of these certifications is an important question.
For many jobs, such as those involving networking or security, a certificate will be required by the employer as a way to determine which potential employees have a basic level of skill. For those who are already in an IT career, a more advanced certificate may lead to a promotion. There are other cases, however, when experience with a certain technology will negate the need for certification. For those wondering about the importance of certification, the best solution is to talk to potential employers and those already working in the field to determine the best choice.
As computing became more important, a separate information-systems function was formed, but it still was generally placed under the CFO and considered to be an administrative function of the company. In the s and s, when companies began networking internally and then linking up to the Internet, the information-systems function was combined with the telecommunications functions and designated the information technology IT department.
As the role of information technology continued to increase, its place in the organization also moved up the ladder. Before the advent of the personal computer, the information-systems function was centralized within organizations in order to maximize control over computing resources. When the PC began proliferating, many departments within organizations saw it as a chance to gain some computing resources for themselves. Some departments created an internal information-systems group, complete with systems analysts, programmers, and even database administrators.
These departmental-IS groups were dedicated to the information needs of their own departments, providing quicker turnaround and higher levels of service than a centralized IT department. However, having several IS groups within an organization led to a lot of inefficiencies: there were now several people performing the same jobs in different departments. This decentralization also led to company data being stored in several places all over the company. The advantages of dedicated IS personnel for each department are weighed against the need for more control over the strategic information resources of the company.
Chapter 7: Design and Development
For many companies, these questions are resolved by the implementation of the ERP system see discussion of ERP in chapter 8. The ERP allows organizations to regain control of their information and influences organizational decisions throughout the company. Many times, an organization needs a specific skill for a limited period of time.
Instead of training an existing employee or hiring someone new, it may make more sense to outsource the job. Outsourcing can be used in many different situations within the information-systems function, such as the design and creation of a new website or the upgrade of an ERP system. Some organizations see outsourcing as a cost-cutting move, contracting out a whole group or department. The integration of information technology has influenced the structure of organizations. Another organizational change enabled by information systems is the network-based organizational structure.
In a networked-based organizational structure, groups of employees can work somewhat independently to accomplish a project. These groups are somewhat informal and allow for all members of the group to maximize their effectiveness. Besides the people who work to create, administer, and manage information systems, there is one more extremely important group of people: the users of information systems.
This group represents a very large percentage of the people involved. If the user is not able to successfully learn and use an information system, the system is doomed to failure.
Org Design for Design Orgs by Peter Merholz, Kristin Skinner
One tool that can be used to understand how users will adopt a new technology comes from a study by Everett Rogers. He identified five specific types of technology adopters:. These five types of users can be translated into information-technology adopters as well , and provide additional insight into how to implement new information systems within an organization. For example, when rolling out a new system, IT may want to identify the innovators and early adopters within the organization and work with them first, then leverage their adoption to drive the rest of the implementation. In this chapter, we have reviewed the many different categories of individuals who make up the people component of information systems.
The world of information technology is changing so fast that new roles are being created all the time, and roles that existed for decades are being phased out. That said , this chapter should have given you a good idea of the importance of the people component of information systems. Bourgeois is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Skip to content Increase Font Size. Learning Objectives Upon successful completion of this chapter, you will be able to: describe each of the different roles that people play in the design, development, and use of information systems; understand the different career paths available to those who work with information systems; explain the importance of where the information-systems function is placed in an organization; and describe the different types of users of information systems.
Introduction In the opening chapters of this text, we focused on the technology behind information systems: hardware, software, data, and networking. The Creators of Information Systems The first group of people we are going to look at play a role in designing, developing, and building information systems. Programmer Programmers spend their time writing computer code in a programming language.
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Computer Engineer Computer engineers design the computing devices that we use every day. Some of the more prominent engineering jobs are as follows: Hardware engineer. A hardware engineer designs hardware components, such as microprocessors. Many times, a hardware engineer is at the cutting edge of computing technology, creating something brand new. Software engineer. Software engineers do not actually design devices; instead, they create new programming languages and operating systems, working at the lowest levels of the hardware to develop new kinds of software to run on the hardware.
Systems engineer. A systems engineer takes the components designed by other engineers and makes them all work together. For example, to build a computer, the mother board, processor, memory, and hard disk all have to work together. Network engineer. Information-Systems Operations and Administration Another group of information-systems professionals are involved in the day-to-day operations and administration of IT.